Apatone (sodium ascorbate and menadione sodium bisulfite) received ODD from the FDA for the treatment of noninfected painful total joint without mechanical complication. IC-MedTech, a pharmaceutical company headquartered in San Diego, CA is currently carrying out the commercialization of Apatone, a combination of vitamin C and vitamin K3 liquid crystals. The principal mechanism of action for Apatone is believed to be targeting inflammation via oxidative redox modulation. By altering the energy cycle within inflamed cells, Apatone can program cells to either repair (inflammation reducing activity) or kill themselves (anti-tumor activity). Apatone has received FDA ODD for two other indications, i.e., autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease and metastatic or locally advanced inoperable transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (stage III and IV bladder cancer).